You don’t even know this is happening...

You don’t even know this is happening...

Sometimes things don’t turn out the way they’re supposed to.

Sometimes you forget the eggs at the grocery store.
Sometimes the FedEx package arrives a day later than it should have.
Sometimes you eat “healthy” and still gain weight.

And sometimes your body does what it thinks is “right”... but it actually betrays you. Like when you develop inflammation.

You may have heard about inflammation, but not know too much about it. Since it’s really important for your overall health, let’s talk about it a little today. In the simplest of terms, inflammation is your body’s response to stress. It could be from your environment, your lifestyle, or your diet.

Your immune system is supposed to protect you from bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. It cleans out damaged cells, irritants, and pathogens, and starts to heal any infections or wounds you may get.

When you see inflammation on your skin, you notice that it produces swelling, due to an increase in fluid to the affected area. This is especially painful, due to the release of chemicals that stimulate nerve endings. It may also look red and feel hot, because the capillaries in that area are filled with more blood than usual.

When you catch a cold, you get a fever as your body heats up to eliminate the invading virus.

These types of acute - temporary - inflammation episodes result from an injury or illness (bronchitis, appendicitis, a cut, sinusitis, etc.)

But there is also chronic inflammation - it lingers on and on, sometimes for years - especially of the internal organs. Although your organs may not have sensory nerve endings, you may still experience chronic symptoms such as:

●      Fatigue
●      Mouth sores
●      Chest or abdominal pain
●      Fever
●      Rash
●      Joint pain
●      Visible signs of aging, like wrinkles
●      Acid reflux
●      Susceptibility to bacterial, fungal, and viral infections

If you suffer from certain chronic diseases or conditions - like asthma, peptic ulcer, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, and a few others - it means your damaged cells and tissues are trying to heal, but are unable to eliminate whatever irritant or invader is causing the inflammation.

In fact, even some major diseases - like cancer, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, depression, and Alzheimer’s - have been linked to chronic inflammation.

There are a number of reasons you may suffer from chronic inflammation.

You may have food allergies or sensitivities. Or an imbalance of bacteria and fungi in your GI tract. You may live in a toxic environment. You may be experiencing high levels of continual stress. Or your diet and lifestyle can lead to inflammation.

If you are suffering from inflammation, you have several different treatment options, in consultation with your physician. You can relieve pain through modified activities or medications. You can work with a physical therapist. And you can evaluate your diet, and make some changes.

Some of the foods that contribute to inflammation include sodas, refined sugars, and red meat as well as processed meats.

As you might guess, by focusing more on plant-based foods as the foundation for your diet, not only will you reduce inflammation and all the side effects, but you’ll also look and feel much better.

Some foods that especially help to reduce inflammation are:

●      Tomatoes
●      Olive oil
●      Green leafy vegetables like spinach, kale, collards
●      Nuts, especially almonds and walnuts
●      Fatty fish like salmon, tuna, mackerel, and sardines
●      Fruits such as strawberries, blueberries, cherries, and oranges

Researchers now see that a diet consisting of high levels of fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, fish, and healthy oils helps reduce inflammation inside your body.

I don’t know if you’re suffering from chronic inflammation right now, but I find many of my clients struggle with several of the symptoms.  Getting healthy and fit is not just about a number on the scale.  It’s about how you feel and how your body functions – especially as you age.

Do you have some possible signs and symptoms of chronic inflammation? 

Start making changes in your lifestyle today, it could add years and quality to your life.


- Robin Mungall NSCA CPT

Results One Habit At A Time
Robin Mungall Fitness 

Translating Seed Labels

Translating Seed Labels

By Jim Hole

Most of the information on seed labels is pretty straightforward. But there is certain terminology that can cause more than a little chin scratching. Here is a list of some of the more common.

GMO and GEO free seed.

GMO is an acronym for Genetically Modified Organism. GEO is similar except that the ‘E’ refers to engineered. “Non-GMO/GEO” and “GMO/GEO Free” both allude to the fact that there haven’t been any genes from a different species inserted into the DNA of the seed that you are buying.

Really, the scientifically correct term for the insertion of DNA into another organism is called ‘Recombinant DNA technology’ not GMO nor GEO. But suffice to say that NO seed can be sold here in Canadian Garden Centres that has had DNA from a different species inserted into it. 

F1 Hybrid

Hybrid can mean different things when it comes to seed but an example that, I think, works for most gardeners are corn hybrids.

Plant breeders might be trying to breed a corn with sweet kernels and early maturing. One variety might be sweet but late. The other variety might be starchy  but early. So breeders will inbreed each variety (no outside pollination) for several years and then bring together the two highly uniform varieties that are subsequently ‘cross pollinated’. 

If everything goes well then—voila—a new hybrid variety that is sweet and early!

Germination Percentage

Some, but not all, seed companies include the percentage germination of each batch of a particular seed variety. Seed germination percentages are often into the 80’s and high 90’s but don’t be surprised to find some seeds down into the 50% range. I’ve seen a number of pepper varieties that have a rather large number of non-viable seeds so don’t be surprised when only about a half of your seeds germinate. It’s just the nature of the beast!


Sometimes – like is often the case with tomato varieties – letters like ‘VFN’ will appear on the label. 

These letters are really geared to professional growers but they still apply to home gardeners. VFN means Verticillium, Fusarium and Nematodes .

Yes, I would say that these names are headache inducing for many gardeners! But the letters just allude to the fact that a particular tomato variety, with these letters on its package are resistant to two specific plant diseases and a worm-like root attacking pest.  

10 Awesome Reasons To Workout & 1 Terrible Reason

10 Awesome Reasons To Workout & 1 Terrible Reason

I was having a conversation with a group of people the other day, talking about exercise and why it's important. In our discussion we started listing of reasons why you workout. From that discussion I have plucked out 10 awesome reasons and one reason that isn't so good. 

10 Awesome Reasons

1. Because you enjoy doing it

2. You enjoy being stronger

3. You like having toned muscles

4. You want to support your weight loss goals with the metabolism boosting effects of exercise

5. Because it gives you confidence 

6. Because it helps you sleep better

7. Because of it's "anti-aging effects"

8. To be a role model for your children

9. To improve athletic performance 

10. Because it reduces risk of injury 

These are great reasons to workout, and it's important that when you embark on a plan to workout consistently that you acknowledge the reasons why and the benefits that have meaning to you. 

There is one reason to workout however that isn't so good. That reason is:

To punish yourself for overeating or eating "junk food".

Working out or movement in general can be and should be a joy. It's something that you do for yourself to feel better, look better, and perform better in which ever capacity that suits you.

It's something that allows you to get the most out your body so you can live a high quality of life for a long time. 

But when you start on the path of exercising because you were "bad" you associate exercise in a negative context making it darn near impossible to be consistent with... (unless self punishment is what you're into.)

You don't have to "earn" that family outing by brutal workouts that you do to offset your food choices, you can't win that game physically or mentally. It's a recipe for stress, anxiety and depression. 

Exercise is a celebration of what you can do, not a punishment for what you ate. 

I'll write that again:

Exercise is a celebration of what you can do, not a punishment for what you ate.

So what are your reasons to exercise? Send me an email I would love to find out and if you are struggling or exercising for the wrong reason, let me know I can help. 


- Robin Mungall NSCA CPT

Results One Habit At A Time
Robin Mungall Fitness 

Why this childhood habit is bad for you as an adult

You’ve heard of siblings like this, right?

Three brothers, all within about 6 years of each other. Everything is a competition. Even eating. Whoever gets the food onto their plate first gets to eat it, but it had better be gone fast or it could get stolen.

If the serving dish on the table only has one piece of chicken left, you can be sure someone will be stabbed with a fork as everyone grabs for it at the same time. Blood everywhere… Tears… Pointing fingers…Whining…

And that’s NOTHING compared to when they were kids! ;-)

Seriously, it’s not just males who eat quickly, without thinking. Many people have developed the habit of eating as fast as possible. Often it’s because you developed the habit while in elementary school, when lunch breaks were short.

And then you continued when you got home from school, wolfing down dinner in order to get to some rehearsal, or practice, or study session on time.

Then as an adult, you work long hours, rush home through painful traffic or on overly-crowded public transportation, only to rush through eating again, because there are bills to pay, bathrooms to clean, kids to shuttle….

Our fast-paced society includes fast-paced eating.

Yet, there are plenty of reasons to eat slowly.

If you eat slowly, it helps your digestion, you stay hydrated more easily, it’s easier to lose weight or maintain a healthy weight, and you enjoy your food more. If eating slowly creates these benefits, eating too quickly obviously causes the opposite effects.

One of the most important reasons to eat more slowly is it allows your brain to catch up with your stomach. It takes about 20 minutes from the time you begin eating for the brain to recognize when you are satiated, that is, full.

Many people eat so fast, their brain doesn’t have time to tell them they are done eating, and they end up consuming more calories than they need!

In addition, if you eat slowly, you help your digestion. Like any system, digestion has to go from step 1 to step 2 to step 3, etc. But it takes time to get ready for each step.

Here’s what I mean. When you think about eating, you start to salivate. Saliva contains enzymes that break down your food and moisten your mouth for easier swallowing.

While this is happening, your stomach starts to secrete more acid in order to digest the food completely. In addition, your small and large intestines begin to get ready to do their jobs. Etc.

When you eat too fast, you send food into this relatively fragile system before it’s ready. This is especially true if you don’t take time to chew your food sufficiently; it lands as a lump in your stomach without having been as well processed as it should be.

So if you suffer from indigestion or other GI problems, you might want to evaluate how quickly you eat your food.

Let’s take a look at a study done by the University of Rhode Island in which they brought in 30 women of “normal” weight, for two visits.

The women were told to eat until full (satiated), but one time they were told to eat quickly, and the other time they were told to put down their fork after each bite.

When they ate quickly, they consumed 646 calories in 9 minutes. When eating slowly, they consumed 579 calories in 29 minutes. That’s 67 fewer calories in 20 more minutes! In addition, when they ate slowly, the women drank 209 grams of water (fast) vs. 410 grams (slow).

Finally, when they ate quickly, the women felt hungry sooner than when they ate the same amount of food slowly.

If you imagine these kinds of results three times a day, seven days a week, week after week, you can see how quickly these women would eat more calories and drink less water, when eating fast.

OK, so I hope I’ve convinced you that eating slowly is much better for you than wolfing down your food. So how do you do that?

There is actually a mindful eating movement afoot. This is when people count their bites, or how often they chew each bite. To do mindful eating very thoroughly, people first sit and look at their food, experiencing it with as many senses as possible - sight, smell, touch - just thinking about what it’s going to taste like and feel like. After five or more minutes of this, THEN they begin to eat their food… slowly.

So sitting and looking at your food for five minutes doesn’t fit your particular lifestyle, here are a few suggestions you can consider incorporating. Even doing a few of them each day will make a big difference in how quickly or slowly you consume your food, and give you the attending health benefits:

●      Eat more high-fiber foods (like fruits and vegetables) that take longer to digest.

●      Cut your bites smaller before putting them in your mouth. Then actually count how many times you chew before swallowing.

●      Drink a glass of water before you sit down to eat - and during the meal - as this will make you feel more full, and less desperate to get the food into your mouth.

●      Use smaller plates for smaller portions.

●      If you usually use a fork, try using chopsticks! (If you’re not familiar with them, this will definitely slow you down.)

●      Give yourself at least 20 to 30 minutes to eat…. Not the usual 5 to 10.

●      Eat with others and engage in witty, engaging conversation. ;-) 

●      Put down your utensil after each bite to savor both the flavors and the company

●      Don’t eat when you’re bored; only when you’re truly hungry

●      Don’t multitask while you eat; pay attention to the experience of eating

●      Eat on a schedule, not all day long

●      Pause to consider where your food came from. The people who harvested it, transported it, stocked the shelves with it, and prepared it; maybe even the animals that were raised for your sustenance. Consider the cultural traditions that brought you to that table, and the recipes shared among family and friends. When you stop to consider all this, it may slow you down and help you make wise choices about sustainability and healthy food.

If you’re like most people I know, you probably lead a pretty busy, hectic life. But when you mindfully, intentionally slow down during your mealtime, you will feel healthier, have more control over your weight, and feel more connected to your food and to those at the table with you. 

- Robin Mungall NSCA CPT

Results One Habit At A Time
Robin Mungall Fitness 

Seed Basics: A Q&A with Lois and Jim Hole

Is it better to grow my annuals from seeds, or should I just buy bedding plants?

Lois—Let your interests be your guide! Growing annuals from seed is a great pastime, especially if you’re eager to start gardening while there’s still snow on the ground. However, some varieties are easier to start from seed than others. We had a heck of a time growing bells of Ireland from seed until we discovered, quite by accident, that they require a cold treatment before they will germinate. If they hadn’t been set down on a cold concrete floor, we never would have discovered what were doing wrong!

Jim—Mom’s right. There’s nothing more frustrating than planting a tray full of seeds only to be faced with a barren pack even after weeks of care. To avoid disappointment, choose easy-to-germinate seed like marigolds and nasturtiums, and buy bedding plants if you want to grow the more demanding annuals like begonias and alyssum. Of course, if you like the challenge of growing the picky species from seed, by all means, give them a try. Just take the time to learn a little about their needs.


When should I start my seeds?

Lois—It depends on when you’re going to transplant your seedlings outdoors. For example, here in St. Albert the average last spring-frost date is May 6. We transplant our pansies outside 3 weeks before that in mid-April. Pansy seedlings take about 14 weeks to grow from seed, so we start the seeds in mid-February. It takes a bit of planning, but it’s worth it. By May last year, I had pots filled with pansies on my deck, and they received rave reviews.

Jim—People spend a lot of time worrying about frost. They don’t realize that many annuals need to be outside and growing in the early part of the growing season. More plants are finished off by heat and drought in the summer than by frost in May! In our experience is actually better to put annuals like pansies outside and cover them than to leave them indoors and have them stretch out from being too hot. There’s really no substitute for planning. Read your seed packets carefully, check on the average last spring-frost date for your area, and do the math for yourself.


What are the easiest annuals to start from seed?

Lois—By and large, the bigger the seed is, the easier it is to grow. If you start off with larger seeds such as sweet peas, nasturtiums, and marigolds, you’re almost guaranteed success. Once you’ve gotten the hang of it, you can move on to smaller seeds, which tend to be more challenging to grow.

Jim—The sweet pea is the easiest annual to grow from seed. Not only is a sweet pea seed big, it’s nearly indestructible! It doesn’t mind if you give it too much water or too little. It’s disease resistant and easy to handle because it’s so big.  On the other hand, tuberous and fibrous begonias are among the trickiest annuals to seed.  The seeds are almost as small as dust particles. You can barely see them, let alone pick them up with your fingers. These seeds require consistently warm soil, and just the right amount of fertilizer; otherwise they starve. Raising begonias from seed is definitely a challenge compared to the easygoing sweet pea!


What do I need to grow my own plants from seed?

Lois—First you need the very best-quality seeds. My mother-in-law, Grandma Hole, always said, “Only the rich can afford to buy cheap things!” If you start off with inferior seed, you might as well not even bother. Also, you’ll want to give those seeds a good home, so be sure to buy a professional seedling mixture.

Jim—You can start with as little as seeds, potting soil, flats, and a sunny window. If you’re ready to get a bit more serious, though, it’s worth investing in the right equipment

Basic equipment checklist
• the best available seed
• the best-quality soilless mix (Seedling Starter Mix)
• a mister bottle
• clean plastic flats
• grow lights
• covers (plastic or fabric)
• fine-textured vermiculite to cover your seedlings
• a thermometer with a probe (an oven meat-thermometer works well)
• heating cables/mats
• fungicides (optional)
• Earth Alive Soil Activator
• tags to label the different varieties


Do I need a special kind of soil for my seedlings?

Lois—Yes! Even though you can get reasonably good results from regular potting soil, you’ll have better luck if you use a special mix for your seedlings. I always use Seedling Starter Mix. It has just the right components for healthy seedlings.

Jim—I agree wholeheartedly. For the best seedlings, you should always start off with the best soil. Spend the few extra dollars and invest in a professional seedling soil. Regular potting soil is too coarse and variable to risk using on your seedlings.


What are hybrid seeds?

Lois—There are many different kinds of hybrid seeds. One hybrid seed tends to be very similar to the next, unlike non-hybrid seeds, which sometimes surprise you when they bloom! Hybrid seeds are more expensive than their non-hybrid cousins, but the extra pennies are worth
it! Plants that grow from hybrid seeds tend to have all kinds of bonuses, like bigger and more colourful blooms, greater disease resistance, and better growth habit.

Jim—Development of hybrid plants is a complex procedure that ultimately, if everything goes right, results in very uniform varieties.


Can I plant the seeds collected from hybrid plants?

Lois—You can, but only if you’re prepared for unpredictable (and often downright unsuccessful) results. Hybrid plants don’t make good parents!

Jim—Seeds taken from hybrid plants don’t grow “true to type.” You can collect and sow hybrid seeds, but only half of the resulting plants will look like the variety that you collected the seed from. The other half will be divided evenly—the two quarters resembling the two parents that gave rise to the hybrid.


What other factors are important for good germination?

Lois—Even though I always emphasize the importance of watering, oxygen is just as important for your seeds. If you keep your flats saturated with water, your seeds will drown. You also need to check your seed packets to see if your seeds require special conditions to germinate.

Jim—Oxygen and moisture must penetrate a seed’s coat in order for it to germinate.  Apart from that, different seeds have their own requirements. For example, the smallest seeds (like alyssum, begonia, coleus, and petunia) generally require light in order to germinate. Other seeds, such as larkspur, phlox, and verbena, prefer to germinate in the dark.

Some seeds actually need a little abuse to get started! In one process, scarification, the seed coats are cut or abraded in order to allow water and oxygen to penetrate. In another process, stratification, the seeds are stored in a cold, moist environment for several weeks or months, to simulate the passing of winter.


What things can contaminate my seedlings?

Lois—Take the time to practice good sanitation. You must be careful to work in a clean space with clean tools. And wash your hands, too!

Jim—Disease can enter the picture at several points.

• Containers or other tools. Rinse your tools, plus any previously used flats or trays, in a 10%-bleach solution.

• Improper sanitation. Listen to Mom! Always wash your hands before working with your seedlings. Tobacco carries the mosaic virus, while certain foods like lettuce carry damping-off diseases.

• Unpasteurized soil.

• The seeds themselves. Some diseases live in the seed or on the seed coat itself. Buy only the best-quality seeds.

• Dirty water or dirty watering cans (tap water is fine, provided it’s not high in salts—sodium in particular).


Do I need to use pesticides to grow seedlings?

Lois—No. Pesticides are not the answer. Ted and I used to grow our seedlings without using pesticides, and to this day, we still do. The key is sanitation, sanitation, sanitation! If you keep everything perfectly clean, you won’t have to rely on chemicals.

Jim—I agree. You don’t need pesticides to grow your seedlings, especially if you use a professional seedling mixture. This is the key—garden soil introduces many unwanted potential problems for seedlings. Fungicides, on the other hand, can be an important investment. Even with the best sanitation, fungal diseases can occasionally find their way to your seedlings.


2018 Fitness Resolution Top 5 Tips

2018 Fitness Resolution Top 5 Tips

I would like nothing more than to hear you tell me in 2019 that your New Years Resolution is to be more charitable or something noble like that and not to get into shape... again.


Because this year I want your “Get into shape” resolution to be something that becomes a sustainable practice and in 2019 you already ARE in shape. 

If you would like that as well here are my top 5 Tips to follow: 

1. Pause and Write Down Why

How will getting into shape be it weight loss or better endurance etc. do for you? What are the deep and meaningful benefits to you? Don’t just think about it, write it down and review it every single morning. 

2. Create a Smart Strategy

 Don’t fall for the hype. The “6 pack in 6 weeks, 3 day belly be gone detox and the magic supplements that promise the results right now.... they all prey on your current fragile emotional state but they very rarely deliver on any sort of sustainable change. Once your willpower is all used up you are left more tired and hating fitness for the rest of the year. 

Instead create a strategy that focuses on practicing one or two changes at a time for 2-4 weeks that you can confidently do. Here are three key questions you need

A: What do you have to do differently?
B: How will you do it?
C: What roadblocks are there and how will you overcome them? 


A: Get 3 workouts in a week
B: Schedule it in at 4pm Mon-Wed-Fri
C: Work stuff — Be flexible with a lunch time and/or Saturday 9am workout option 

3. Be Compassionate

Getting into shape requires healthy lifestyle changes, that’s not easy to do and you will make mistakes. There is no room for perfectionist mindsets. Where most people quit after the first slip up or when life gets hard, this is where I want to see you practice being compassionate with yourself. You will make mistakes, that’s called being human and that’s a great time to laugh and learn not cry and quit. Keep going that’s how sustainable change is done. 


I have been helping people get into shape since 2003. I can count the number of people who have done it alone with no support on one hand. 

Getting support is key to getting you through that stage when motivation dissipates but your actions are not quite a habit just yet. 

Think of support as a sporting event. You have fans in the stands, teammates and a coach all helping you win. Fans will cheer you on but won’t help you take action. They still want to see you win. This is the bulk of your friends and family. 

Teammates are taking action with you, all moving toward the same goal. A group of likeminded people like in my semi-private training program are going to war with you. They will help you stay consistent when times are tough.

Coaching will help you with an effective game plan and accountability for the best chance at winning. 

5. Keep A Record

No matter what you try, write down what you are doing. Your chances of fully succeeding DOUBLE when you write it down. No one can do this for you and deliver the same effect. YOU need to take responsibility for recording your actions, reviewing them and making progress. There is nothing worse than when I hear “I think I am doing it”. By recording your actions you can confirm your actions and know exactly how you are doing.


Have a healthy and happy New Year!

- Robin Mungall NSCA CPT

Results One Habit At A Time
Robin Mungall Fitness 

Favourite Herbs: Lemon Verbena


Lemon Verbena

Aloysia triphylla [aka A. citriodora, Lippia triphylla]

Tender perennial; grown as an annual in most parts of Canada

Height 1 to 2 m; spread 45 cm to 1 m.

Herb with stiff, apple-green, willowy leaves and small, pale-lilac flowers in pyramid-shaped clusters.

Try these!

Only Aloysia triphylla is readily available in North America.


Lemon verbena is best grown from young plants purchased from a garden centre.

How much: At least two plants.

When: One to two weeks after the average date of last spring frost in your area.

Where: Full sun, sheltered; a south facing wall is ideal. Prefers rich, well-drained soil. Space plants at least 30 cm apart.

Care and Nurture

Lemon verbena is easy to grow! It loves heat, but don’t let it dry out.


Harvest leaves throughout the growing season. The flowers are also edible and tasty, but verbena rarely blooms in Canada’s short growing season.

For best flavour: Harvest mature plants: the lemon fragrance and flavour grow stronger with age.

Leaves: Strip leaves from the woody stems with your fingers; discard any tough stalks.

Flowers: Harvest as they appear; clip from stem and use whole.

Preserving the Harvest

Lemon verbena leaves will retain their flavour for years. Dry and place immediately in an airtight jar, and keep the jar in a cool, dark place. You can also freeze the chopped leaves and flowers; use the ice-cube method (see page XXX).


  • Give lemon verbena the sunniest location you can. The plants respond well to warmth and light.
  • Lemon verbena usually grows best when it is free of competition. However, I like to plant lemon verbena in a pot with 'Dark Opal' basil: the plant's contrasting leaf colours look fantastic together, they like the same growing conditions, and one never overgrows the other.

To Note:

  • Put lemon verbena leaves in the vacuum cleaner bag to freshen the house while you clean.
  • Infuse sprigs of lemon verbena for use in finger bowls.
  • Lemon verbena's essential oils are used in soft drinks, liqueurs, and perfumes. The dried leaves are good for potpourris.
  • Lemon verbena is native to South America. The Latin Aloysia comes from Maria Louisa, wife of Charles IV of Spain.
  • In the film Gone With the Wind (1939), lemon verbena is one of the favourite fragrances of Scarlet O'Hara's mother.



Favourite Herbs: Thyme



Thymus spp.

Tender perennial; ornamental varieties are hardy.

Height 15 to 50 cm; spread 15 to 30 cm.

Herb with small, dark-green or variegated leaves with hairy undersides and tiny, tubular, lavender, mauve, pink, purple, or white flowers borne in loose whorls.

Try these!

Thymus vulgaris (English thyme, German thyme, Winter thyme, Common thyme): Most common variety; broad-leaf variety; grows vigorously, with a full, strong flavour

Thymus vulgaris (French thyme, Summer thyme): Narrow-leaf variety; greyer and sweeter than English thyme

Thymus x citriodorus (Lemon thyme): Best for tea; less pungent, with a citrus flavour, and thus better used in desserts and custards


Thyme is best grown from young plants purchased from a garden centre.

How much: One plant of each type you enjoy.

When: As soon as the ground can be worked; quite frost-tolerant.

Where: Full sun. Grows well in containers. Prefers light, sandy, well-drained soil; will grow in poor soil. Space plants 45 cm apart.

Care and Nurture

Thyme is easy to grow! Trim lightly after flowering to encourage compact, bushy growth. Fertilize only lightly for best leaf flavour. Thyme does not like to dry out, but overwatering and excessive fertilizer make the leaves taste bland. To ensure continued vigour in perennial varieties, divide the plants every 3 to 4 years.


When gathering wild thyme, taste and smell the plants as you pick to find those that are the most aromatic. For maximum leaf production, don’t let the plant flower.

For best flavour: If you’re harvesting leaves, pick them just before the plants bloom; if you’re harvesting flowers, pick them just as they open.

Leaves: Harvest throughout the season, as needed. Thyme leaves are too small to pick individually. Clip upper stems; use whole or strip leaves from tougher stems. Throw stems on the BBQ.

Flowers: Pick flowers as they appear. Flowers grow in clusters; clip cluster from growing stem and gently separate into individual florets.

Preserving the Harvest

In milder climates, thyme is an evergreen, so fresh leaves can be picked year-round. Thyme leaves dry well (see page XXX for methods) and can also be preserved by the ice-cube method (see page XXX). Thyme flowers should be used fresh.


  • Culinary varieties will generally over winter if you are careful about the location. Find a sheltered spot with good snow cover and light sandy soil.
  • Although we have listed only a few common varieties, there are more than 120 varieties of thyme, some from Europe, western Asia, North Africa, and the Canary Islands. Here are some other edible varieties you may want to try.
    • Golden lemon thyme (Thymus x citriodorus 'Aureas') has a bright lemon flavour; its leaves have scattered yellow edges.
    • The unique aroma of caraway thyme (Thymus herba-barona) is a cross between sweet caraway and pine.
    • Orange balsam thyme (Thymus x Orange Balsam)has a wonderful orange fragrance and flavour.
    • Nutmeg thyme (Thymus praecox ssp. articus) is a small-leafed trailing species with the scent and flavour of nutmeg.
    • Oregano thyme (Thymus sp.) bears a hint of oregano in its scent and flavour.
    • Wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum), also known as mother of thyme or broad-leaved thyme, can be used for cooking, but makes a better groundcover. It exudes a lovely scent when stepped on. Woolly mother-of-thyme or woolly thyme (Thymus pseudolanuginosus) is another ornamental variety with a superb scent, but is not recommended for cooking. Try growing it around patio stones or in a rock garden.
  • In most areas of Canada, perennial thymes require mulching and protection to survive the winter.

To Note:

  • Thyme's essential oil, thymol, can be used to preserve meat. Thymol is also used as the fungicidal ingredient in mildew control products, and serves as an important component of many mouthwashes, lozenges, cough syrups, colognes, detergents, and toothpaste.
  • Dried thyme flowers are used in sachets to repel moths from clothing.
  • Thyme grown in and around Grasse, in southern France, is used in perfumeries. The thyme also supplies bees with pollen, yielding the thyme-flavoured honey that is sold in district markets.
  • Scottish highlanders drank wild thyme tea to give them strength and courage and to prevent nightmares. Similarly, a sprig of thyme in a bed pillow is said to repel nightmares.
  • One of the most important herbs in human civilization, thyme was cultivated in Sumeria as early as 3000 BC. Indeed, an ancient Sumerian stone tablet mentions thyme in what could be the world's oldest prescription: "After grinding together the seeds of saffron and thyme and putting them in beer, the patient shall drink."
  • The preserving properties of thyme were well known to the Egyptians, who used it for embalming.


Favourite Herbs: French Tarragon

French Tarragon


Artemisia dracunculus var. sativa

Tender perennial

Height 60 to 120 cm; spread 30 to 45 cm.

Branching herb with smooth, shiny, dark-green, lobe-shaped leaves.

Try these!

Artemisia dracunculus sativa (French tarragon, True tarragon) is the only variety worth growing: the flavour is distinctive, with a slight hint of anise—wonderful!


Grow from young plants purchased from a garden centre. French tarragon cannot be grown from seed.

How much: At least two plants.

When: Around the date of the date of average last spring frost.

Where: Full sun. Demands light, well-drained soil; cannot tolerate wet or poorly drained soil. Space plants at least 60 cm apart.

Care and Nurture

Tarragon requires some care to grow well. Water regularly to keep plant lush and full. Tarragon doesn’t require much fertilizer. Tarragon spreads, like mint, by underground runners, but is not nearly as invasive or hard to control. Tarragon tends to die back or get woody in the centre; it requires regular division and should be renewed every 3 or 4 years. Because tarragon is not completely hardy, it requires mulching in the fall for winter protection.


The leaves can be harvested from early spring until fall.

For best flavour: Choose tender growth; harvest only as much as you need immediately.

Leaves: Harvest individual leaves by clipping the leaf stalk where it attaches to the stem. Cut sprigs where they attach to the main growing stem; use whole or strip the leaves. Discard tough stalks or use on BBQ.

Flowers: Edible, but not normally eaten.

Preserving the Harvest

Tarragon is best used fresh, but can be preserved by freezing. Tarragon is also commonly preserved in white vinegar—tarragon vinegar is a typical gourmet product. Don’t bother drying tarragon: it loses its essential oils when dried.


  • Never buy Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus dracunculoides)! Its flavour is poor—in fact, it’s almost tasteless. If you see tarragon seed for sale, it will definitely be the inferior Russian tarragon, so don’t buy it. The true French variety can only be propagated vegetatively.
  • Tarragon prefers warm but not hot locations in full sun. I like to plant mine in a sunny location that is protected from the hot late-afternoon sun.

To Note:

  • Tarragon contains high amounts of calcium and potassium.
  • Tarragon has been used to reduce swellings, alleviate toothaches, and to freshen breath.
  • Tarragon is related to wormwood, southernwood, and mugwort.
  • Hippocrates used tarragon to draw venom from snakebites.
  • The Okanagan, Shuswap, Kootenay, and Blackfoot peoples all used tarragon as an insect-repelling smudge. Several tribes would bake tarragon leaves between two hot stones and eat the leaves with salt water.
  • The Mongols and the Crusaders introduced tarragon into Europe.
  • Tarragon gets its species name from a strange superstition recorded by Pliny, the famous Roman author and scientist. He wrote that anyone carrying a twig of the plant would be protected against snakes and dragons. The species came to be known as Dracunculus or “little dragon."



Favourite Herbs: Sunflowers



Helianthus annuus


Height 30 cm to 2 m (some varieties can grow to heights of 6 m or more); spread 15 to 45 cm.

Huge flower heads sport bright-yellow petals around a centre of black seeds.

Try these!

Helianthus annuus (sunflower):

Helianthus annuus giganteus (giant sunflower):


Seed sunflowers directly into the garden or, to get a jump on the season, set out young plants purchased from a garden centre. If you use young plants, be sure they come in individually celled containers: sunflowers don’t like to have their roots disturbed.

How much: Two to three plants; more for ornamental use.

When: Seed as soon as the soil can be worked. Set out young plants one week after the average date of last frost in your area.

Where: Full sun. Prefers rich, well-drained soil; will grow in any soil. Space tall varieties 60 cm apart; space short varieties 45 to 50 cm apart.

Care and Nurture

Sunflowers are very easy to grow! Rain generally provides all the moisture they require, but if conditions are dry, additional watering will produce larger, lusher plants and bigger flowers. Sunflowers self-sow readily, so don’t be surprised if a few plants keep turning up year after year, either in your own yard or your neighbour's.


The flower buds, ray petals, and dried seeds can be eaten If you’re growing sunflowers for the flower buds, choose a perennial or multi-stemmed annual variety, rather than a single-stem annual variety: they produce lots of flower heads. If you’re growing them for the seeds, choose a single-stem variety and don’t harvest petals from the flower heads.

For best flavour: Pampered sunflowers will produce the best growth.

Leaves: Not harvested.

Flowers: Harvest buds as they appear. Clip buds cleanly from stem. Once the flower opens, use only the petals. Pull individual ray petals from growing flower heads, or cut whole flowers and strip the ray petals. Discard the central disc florets.

Seeds: Cut the mature flower heads of sunflowers when they droop, the back of the head is dry and brown, and the seeds are dark and dry. Brush off any remaining petals with your fingers.

Preserving the Harvest

Use the petals and flower buds fresh—they do not store well. I like to tie the mature sunflower heads to the beams of my garage until I’m ready to use them. It’s cool and dry there, and the heads get lots of air movement, preventing decay.


  • Grow small varieties in containers. Ikarus and Soraya look great in large containers; you can also try Pacino, Big Smile, and Teddy Bear (my favourite, since its flowers looks like those in the Van Gogh painting).
  • Perennial sunflowers tend to deplete the soil where they grow; they should be replanted in a new site every few years, with plenty of well-rotted manure and compost added to the new spot. I prefer to add lots of well-rotted manure and compost each fall so I don’t have to move my plants. Instead, I divide the plant every 3 or 4 years.
  • One year, some people who lived down the road from us planted sunflowers close to their corn. Unfortunately, crows swooped down and devastated both crops. To prevent birds from eating all the seeds before you harvest them, cover the flower heads with brown paper bags as soon as they mature.
  • The best fertilizers for sunflowers contain twice as much potassium as nitrogen, e.g., 15-15-30.
  • Perennial sunflowers tolerate poor soil but they don’t like to dry out.

To Note:

  • Sunflowers are wonderful in backgrounds, borders, and hedges. They’re also a great choice for children's gardens because the seeds are large enough for little fingers to handles and the plants come up quickly and are easily maintained.
  • The name Helianthus is derived from the Greek words helios (sun) and anthos (flower). Sunflowers are heliotropic, meaning that they follow the sun. The flowers and leaves turn to the rising sun in the east and follow it across the sky.
  • Tall Mammoth sunflowers have heads with a width of up to 40 cm, containing 2000 seeds.
  • Each day, a large sunflower uses 17 times as much water as a person does!
  • It is purported that chickens will increase their egg laying if they are fed sunflower seeds.
  • Sunflower pith is one of the least dense substances known, and is used in many scientific experiments and laboratories.
  • In China, sunflowers have been cultivated and used for making delicate silks and cobise ropes.
  • Sunflowers have an incredible ability to absorb water from soil. They have been used in the reclamation of marshland in the Netherlands.
  • Dried sunflower stems are very hard and make an excellent fuel. Scatter the ashes as a potash fertilizer.
  • Boil sunflower petals to make a yellow dye. Sunflower is a good bee plant as it gives the hives large quantities of wax and nectar.
  • Sunflower oil has an incredible variety of uses. The oil cake, when warm pressed, yields a less valuable oil used for soap making, candle making, and the art of wool dressing. This cheaper oil is used as a drying oil for mixing paint and is an excellent lubricant.
  • The common sunflower is a native of Mexico and Peru. It was cultivated by American Indians 3000 years ago. In the Aztec culture, sunflowers were symbolic of the sun and Aztec sun priestesses were crowned with sunflowers. They carried them in their hands and wore gold jewelry decorated with sunflower emblems. Sunflowers were introduced into Europe in the 16th century by returning Spanish explorers.


Favourite Herbs: Savory

savory (1).png


Satureia hortensis (summer savory)

Satureia montana (winter savory)

Summer savory: Annual

Winter savory: Hardy evergreen perennial

Summer savory: Height 30 to 45 cm; spread 30 to 60 cm. Large, widely branched bush with long, lance-shaped leaves and pink or white flowers.

Winter savory: Height 15 to 40 cm; spread 15 to 30 cm. Compact, low-growing bush with lance-shaped leaves and white or pink flowers.

Try these!

Satureia hortensis (summer savory): Easiest to grow; delicate flavour

Satureia montana (winter savory): Strong, pungent flavour

Satureia biflora (lemon savory): Tender perennial with an intense lemon scent and flavour; rare, often difficult to locate


Savory can be started indoors from seed, grown from young plants purchased from a garden centre, or split from a established plant early in the spring.

How much: At least two plants.

When: Two weeks after the date of average last spring frost.

Where: Full sun to light shade. Prefers light, well-drained soil. Space plants 30 cm apart.

Care and Nurture

Savory is easy to grow! Let the soil surface dry before you water, then soak thoroughly. Feed lightly. Winter savory should be divided and replanted every 2 or 3 years. Do this in the early spring by digging up the clump and removing any of the old, tough growth in the centre. Then split the balance of the plant into smaller clumps and replant.


Summer savory tends to get leggy, so don’t hesitate to cut it back hard (by up to a third) to keep it producing. Harvest winter savory regularly to keep it looking bushy and full.

For best flavour: Harvest Summer savory in late spring or early summer, before the plants flower—later than that, the taste gets a bit bitter. Winter savory can be harvested all season, but young leaves taste best.

Leaves: Harvest individual leaves by clipping the leaf stalk where it attaches to the plant stem. Cut sprigs and use whole, or strip the leaves. Discard tough stalks.

Flowers: Edible, but not normally eaten; collect in late summer.

Preserving the Harvest

Summer savory is best preserved by drying. Winter savory can be dried or frozen.


  • The leaves should be gathered before the plant flowers. I like to cut my plants back by about two-thirds after flowering and use the new, fresh, sweet shoots.
  • I like to trim my winter savory back in the spring to encourage new growth.
  • I also like to prune my summer savory in the spring, about a month after I set the young plants into the garden. Summer savory grows vigorously and can get quite lanky. Pruning soon after the plants are established encourages, bushy, more compact plants.

To Note:

  • In ancient times, savories were thought to belong to the Satyrs, hence the genus name Satureia.
  • The Romans introduced savory when they invaded England some 2000 years ago. The Romans used savory and other aromatic herbs in vinegar in much the same way we use mint sauce.
  • In Shakespeare's time, savory was a common herb. It is mentioned, along with mint, marjoram, and lavender, in The Winter’s Tale.
  • Summer savory was one of the herbs brought to the New World by the pilgrims. John Josselyn, one of the early American settlers, compiled a list of plants introduced by the English colonists to remind them of their gardens in England. He mentioned both winter and summer savory.


Favourite Herbs: Sage



Salvia officinalis

Hardy perennial

45 to 60 cm; spread to 1 m.

Herb with woolly, pebbled, oval grey-green or variegated leaves and blue, purple, pink or white flowers.

Try these!

Salvia officinalis (garden sage): Most commonly grown; the main culinary variety

Salvia officinalis purpurea (purple sage): Very aromatic purple foliage; excellent in stuffings, omelettes, soups, and stews; requires winter protection to survive

Salvia officinalis ‘Tricolor’ (tricolour sage): Aromatic foliage; mild flavour; very decorative; tender perennial—requires winter protection to survive

Salvia elegans [aka S. rutilans] (pineapple sage): Tender perennial; very sweet, vibrant red flowers


Sage is best grown from young plants purchased from a garden centre.

How much: At least two plants.

When: Two weeks after the date of the average last spring frost.

Where: Full sun, sheltered. Will tolerate light shade. Grows well in containers. Prefers rich, well-drained soil. Space plants 30 to 45 cm apart.

Care and Nurture

Sage requires some care to grow well. Do not overwater. Prune lightly in July, after flowering, to encourage new growth. Sage bushes are short-lived perennials; they get woody, produce less foliage, and begin to die out after 3 or 4 years. I like to replace my plant with new stock after 3 years. In cooler climates, mulch lightly in the fall to protect plants from winter's chill.


Harvest leaves regularly to encourage new growth. The younger leaves have a better flavour.

For best flavour: Harvest leaves before the flowers open.

Leaves: Harvest S. officinalis throughout the season, up to early fall. Harvest individual leaves by clipping the leaf stalk where it attaches to the plant stem. Cut sprigs and use whole, or strip the leaves. Discard tough stalks.

Flowers: Harvest S. elegans flowers as they open. Clip cleanly from the stem. Remove any green bits before eating.

Preserving the Harvest

Dry sage leaves slowly to preserve their flavour; they take a long time to dry, but once they are thoroughly dry, they will keep for about a year. Use flowers fresh or preserve in vinegar. Pineapple sage flowers are best crystallized—the red flowers are very pretty.


  • Here are some other edible sage varieties you may want to try.
    • Salvia officinalis ‘Berggarten’: Low-growing plant with extra-large leaves; one of the best-known choice strains
    • Salvia officinalis aurea (golden sage): Very pretty chartreuse yellow leaves; same flavour as standard sage.
    • Salvia officinalis ‘Holt's Mammoth’: Tall plant with extra-large leaves; a well-known choice strain
  • Clary sage (Salvia sclarea), an annual sage grown for its aromatic flowers, which may be blue, purple, mauve, or cream-coloured, has great ornamental value. We sell it as a bedding plant, and although it’s not our most popular annual, there are customers who ask for it year after year to plant in their flower beds.

To Note:

  • Put dried sage leaves in the linen drawer to discourage insects.
  • Sage was first cultivated by the ancient Greeks, who valued it as a medicinal plant. Sage has long been purported to possess great healing properties; a proverb from the Middle Ages goes, "Why should a man die if sage flourishes in his garden?"
  • Sage was so valued by the Chinese in the 17th century that Dutch merchants found the Chinese would trade three chests of China Tea for one chest of sage.
  • The Romans considered sage a sacred herb and gathered it with ceremony. A sacrifice of bread and wine was made, and the gatherer wore a white tunic, feet bared and washed. The sage was never cut with an iron tool—a good idea, since iron salts are not compatible with sage.
  • There is a superstition that sage grows at its best when the wife rules the house! It is also said that the sage plant will thrive if all is well with its owner and will droop when fortunes fall.
  • In medieval times, sage was believe to have magical properties. Here is a typical sage charm: Make three holes in a sage leaf. Thread them with a hair from your head as well as one from the woman you desire. Bury the leaf under her doorstep. The woman of your dreams will love you forever.


Favourite Herbs: Roses



Rosa spp.

Perennial of variable hardiness

Height and spread vary widely, depending on species.

Shrub, featuring fragrant blossoms on graceful green stems with dark-green leaves.

Try these!

Species roses (Rosa rugosa) are best for crops of rosehips, because they produce lots of edible pulp. Old garden roses or antique roses (Rosa alba, Rosa damascena, Rosa gallica) are known for their beautiful, fragrant flowers. Please see Lois Hole’s Rose Favorites for specific variety recommendations.


Plant large, well-rooted, container-grown roses from the garden centre.

How much: One plant of each type you enjoy.

When: Anytime during the growing season—from early spring to just before freeze-up.

Where: Full sun. Demands rich, well-drained soil. Space variable, depending on variety.

Care and Nurture

Roses are easy to grow! Try this basic advice: water once a week, fertilize once a month, prune once a year, and deadhead once in a while. Roses need more water than most plants. As a rule of thumb, give each rose 5 L of water per week for every 30 cm of height. Water only around the plant bases to reduce the incidence of powdery mildew and moisture loss through evaporation. Cut off damaged or diseased branches whenever you spot them. Fertilize once a month with 28-14-14 rose food. Use a fertilizer with chelated iron added to avoid veiny leaves. Ensure that the plants are well watered before freeze-up. For detailed care and nurture instructions, see Lois Hole's Rose Favorites.


For a lovely blend of flavours, pull a few petals from several different types of roses and combine. The darkest petals are said to be most flavourful.

For best flavour: Harvest mid-morning, after the dew has evaporated and before the day gets too hot.

Leaves: Not harvested.

Flowers: Just as the flowers open fully, well before they start to fade. Cut stem ten to twelve centimetres from base of flower; remove stem and greenery when you’re ready to use the petals.

Hips: Pick when they are red and plump, but not soft and overripe. Pull cleanly from the plant.

Preserving the Harvest

Petals should be used fresh. Wash the petals and remove the green or white heel at the base of each one. The petals may be preserved in butter, syrup, vinegar or crystallized. Prepare hips quickly after harvesting by slicing off the stem and blossom ends, cutting the hips in half, and scooping out the fibres and seeds with a spoon. The halves can be eaten fresh or dried on a screen in a shady, well-ventilated room.


  • I like to plant several varieties that bloom at different time of the season, so I have a continuous supply of flower petals.

To Note:

  • There are more than 10,000 varieties of rose. Three types of scents are recognized: old rose, tea rose, and myrrh. The Rosa centifolia varieties of roses have less scent than the Rosa gallica group. The best of all the roses for scent is the old cabbage rose.
  • Fossil records indicate that roses have existed for much longer than man—40,000,000 years! Roses were first cultivated in northern Persia. Cultivation then spread to Greece, and from there to Italy.
  • The word Rosa comes from the Greek word rodon, meaning red.
  • Cultivated roses to be used in perfumes are grown mostly in Bulgaria, Persia, and India.
  • The juice of the burnet rose has been used as a dye to colour muslin and silk a peach colour. When mixed with alum, it gives a violet colour.
  • It was once a custom to hang a rose over the dinner table to signify that all discussions were to remain confidential.
  • The national flower of Britain, the rose is a common insignia used in heraldry and in the Order of the Garter, the Order of the Bath, and many other Orders.
  • During World War II, soldiers and children alike ate rosehips for their high vitamin C content.
  • Shakespeare and his contemporaries ate rose petals in everything from teas to jellies.
  • The dog rose was probably named dagwood from the many thorns, or daggers, it produces. Another theory holds that the name comes from the plants supposed ability to cure rabies or mad-dog bites.
  • The ancients describe roses as having a deep crimson colour, which may be the origin of the fable that the colour came from the blood of Adonis.
  • Rose oil is very expensive. It is sometimes adulterated with palmarosa, or rose geranium oil. Oil of rose is light. The oil congeals at a temperature between 17 to 21° C.
  • In the late 16th and early 17th century, the oil Attar of Roses was discovered. There are records of Attar of Roses being imported and sold at great cost in 1694. It was an important perfume in those times. Rose cultivation in the Grasse area produces rosewater and French Attar. It takes the distillation of 10,000 pounds of roses to obtain 1 pound of oil.


Favourite Herbs: Rosemary



Rosmarinus officinalis

Tender evergreen perennial; grown as an annual in most areas of Canada

Height 30 to 100 cm, can reach 200 cm; spread 30 to 60 cm.

Looks like a little tree: upright bush growth habit, with hundreds of straight, needle-shaped, succulent green leaves; the branches sometimes twist. Creeping varieties have a prostrate growth habit.

Fragrant blue flowers appear in summer.

Try these!

Rosmarinus officinalis ‘Arp’: Hardier strain, survives outdoors in zone 6 with winter protection

Rosmarinus officinalis 'Prostratus' (creeping rosemary): Produces lots of pale-blue flowers; fine creeping/trailing growing habit

Rosmarinus officinalis ‘Rex’: Very upright variety with large, deep-green leaves; vigorous growth habit.


Rosemary can be difficult to grow from seed. If you enjoy a challenge, start indoors from seed in February or early March; otherwise, grow young plants purchased from a garden centre or propagate from cuttings.

How much: At least two plants.

When: Around the date of average last spring frost.

Where: Full sun; tolerates light shade. Excellent in containers. Prefers light, well-drained, dry soils. Space plants 45 to 60 cm apart in the garden; space one plant per pot in a small container, 3 to 5 plants per pot in a large container.

Care and Nurture

Once established, rosemary is easy to grow! Young plants need lots of water, but once established, rosemary is very drought resistant and can tolerate a dry spell or two. Rosemary loves the heat!


If you bring your rosemary inside for the winter and put it in a sunny window, you can continue to enjoy fresh leaves year-round. Harvest lightly during the winter, however, because the plant is getting less light and producing fewer leaves.

For best flavour: Harvest leaves just before the flowers bloom.

Leaves: Harvest throughout the growing season. Cut sprigs and use whole, or strip the needles and discard the stem or use on BBQ  for flavour.

Flowers: Harvest as they open. Clip cleanly from the stem. Remove any green bits before eating.

Preserving the Harvest

Rosemary leaves are best preserved by drying (see page XXX). The flowers can be used fresh or preserved in oil.


  • Two other rosemary varieties you might enjoy are Rosmarinus officinalis 'Benenden Blue', which has deep-blue flowers, narrow leaves, and an upright growth habit, and Rosmarinus officinalis ‘Blue Boy’, which produces lots of flowers, has excellent flavour, and has a more compact form. Blue Boy is a good choice for growing indoors in small pots.
  • If rosemary is hardy in your area, remember that it’s a short-lived perennial. After a few years it will become bare, sparse, and woody. I like to replace my plant every 3 years. Never cut it back in the fall: the growth above the ground will help protect and insulate the roots over the winter.
  • It's best to grow rosemary in large pots, since most Canadians will need to bring it indoors for it to survive the winter.
  • Rosemary’s narrow leaves don’t normally display signs of wilt, even when the plants get quite dry, so if your plant is wilting, it hasn’t been watered in a very long time.

To Note:

  • In England, rosemary is a traditional Yuletide green and serves as a Christmas tree when decorated with ornaments. Recently one American herb grower began raising rosemary shrubs large enough to use as Christmas trees. They take 2 years to grow and sell for about $300 US. In a similar vein, we bring in rosemary topiaries in clay pots each winter. People love having a beautiful, scented plant like rosemary around for the holidays.
  • Rosemary can be easily trained to grow in wreath or topiary form.
  • Rosemary is native to the Mediterranean region and is commonly found growing close to the ocean—hence the common name “rose of the sea” (rosa del mare).
  • Rosemary is an ingredient in many soaps, shampoos, and insect repellents. One kilogram of oil is obtained from 200 kilograms of flowering rosemary stems.
  • Branches or sachets of rosemary are often placed in clothes closets to keep moths away.
  • Rosemary flowers are attractive to bees.
  • In ancient times, rosemary was used in place of expensive incense. An old French name for it was "Incensier.”
  • During World War Two, a mixture of rosemary leaves and juniper berries was burned in French hospitals to kill germs. Later research showed that rosemary oil does indeed have some antibacterial effect.
  • Rosemary was carried at religious ceremonies. It was believed that its pungent scent would ward off disease and evil spirits. Brides wore wreaths of rosemary to denote love and loyalty, and branches gilded and tied with ribbons was presented to guests.
  • In medieval times, rosemary was believed to grow only in the gardens of the righteous, and was used as a charm against witchcraft—particularly the Evil Eye.



Favourite Herbs: Parsley



Petroselinum crispum

Biennial or short-lived perennial; generally grown as an annual

Height 30 to 45 cm (Italian varieties up to 1 m); spread to 30 cm (Italian varieties 45 to 60 cm).

Upright, multi-stemmed plant that forms attractive, dark-green mounds.

Try these!

Petroselinum crispum crispum (curled parsley): Strong aroma and flavour

Petroselinum crispum neapolitanum (Italian parsley, flat-leaf parsley, plain-leaf parsley): Lovely, rich, full flavour

Petroselinum crispum tuberosum (Hamburg parsley, root parsley): Both leaves and roots are used; good for soups, stews, and steaming.


Parsley is best grown from young plants purchased from a garden centre. The seed germinates very slowly and requires very warm temperatures for successful germination; the seedlings also grow very slowly.

How much: Two to six plants.

When: About a week before the date of average last spring frost in your area.

Where: Full sun. Prefers rich, well-drained soil. Space plants 20 to 25 cm apart.

Care and Nurture

Parsley is easy to grow! Garden parsley need little attention other than water during dry spells. Parsley grown in containers needs water every day. Parsley loves cool temperatures but will tolerate heat.


Begin harvesting when parsley produces leaf stems with three segments. Harvest root parsley, in the fall, when the plant is mature; pull up like parsnip.

For best flavour: Harvest mid-morning, after the dew has evaporated and before the day gets too hot.

Leaves: Harvest individual leaves by clipping the leaf stalk where it attaches to the plant stem. Cut sprigs and use whole, or strip the leaves. Stalks are edible but discard if too tough.

Flowers: Edible, but not normally eaten.

Preserving the Harvest

Use fresh, frozen, or dried. Keep a jar of chopped parsley in your freezer and crumble off whatever amount you need, or use the ice-cube method (see page XXX). Parsley dries very well, too. Crumbled dried leaves and stems and store in plastic containers.


  • Here’s a quick and easy method for drying parsley. Dip sprig in boiling water for 2 minutes. (I use a colander, so it’s easy to get out.) Bake the sprigs on a cookie sheet in a cool oven until crisp. Keep an eye on the parsley to avoid toasting it. As soon as the leaves are cool, crush and store in an air-tight container.
  • Parsley prefers cooler temperatures, although it will tolerate heat. When we grew it commercially, we had little choice of location: we had to grow it in an open field! At home, I like to choose a location that is shaded from the hot late-day sun. The overall plant growth may be less vigorous, but the leaves are much sweeter and tastier.
  • If parsley is left in the ground for a second season, it will flower and set seed. In warmer areas, parsley patches may sustain themselves for a few years. Plain-leafed varieties are hardier than curly-leafed varieties.
  • Because of its high chlorophyll content, parsley is one of the best plants to chew to fight bad breath. I’m an advocate of eating the parsley garnish from my plant at restaurants, and I encourage my family and friends to do so too. Parsley cleanses the palate, freshens the breath, and tastes great, too! Chefs often leave a bowl of parsley sprigs in ice water in their kitchens, for the waiters to chew before serving guests in the dining room.

To Note:

  • Parsley is an excellent source of vitamins A, B, and C. It is very rich in iron, iodine, and magnesium.
  • Parsley is an attractive ornamental, good for filling in empty spaces or edging in flowerbeds.
  • Parsley can irritate sensitive skin on some individuals.
  • Parsley gets its name from the Greek word “Petroselinon,” a combination of the words petros (rock) and selinon (celery).
  • The Greeks fed parsley to their horses to give them strength and courage in battle. The Greeks also wore parsley wreaths during eating and drinking binges, believing that parsley would relieve the effect of intoxication.
  • Powdered parsley seed, placed on the skull several nights each year, was thought to cure baldness.


Favourite Herbs: Pansies, Violas and Violets

Pansies, Violas and Violets


Viola spp.

Hardy annuals; may self-seed

Pansies: Height 15 to 18 cm; spread 15 to 20 cm.

Viola: Height 10 to 18 cm; spread 10 to 15 cm.


Violets: Height 10 to 15 cm; spread 20 to 25 cm.

All characterized by bicoloured and tricoloured flowers, in a wide range of contrasting shades, on dark-green foliage.

Try these!

Viola odorata (sweet violet): Wonderful perfume and sweet flavour

Viola x wittrockiana (pansy): Slight wintergreen taste

Viola tricolor (viola): Slight wintergreen taste


Start viola species from seed indoors or grow from young plants purchased from a garden centre.

How much: Six plants; more for ornamental use.

When: As soon as the ground can be worked; very frost tolerant. Plant up to one month before the date of average last spring frost in your area.

Where: Partial shade; bright sun will produce more flowers, but hot sites will scorch plants. Prefers rich, slightly acidic, well-drained soil. Space pansies and violas 15 to 20 cm apart; space violets 10 to 15 cm apart.

Care and Nurture

Viola species are easy to grow! Do not let pansies, violas, or violets dry out: they go to seed quickly if stressed or deprived of moisture. If plants become lanky, cut them back to encourage bushiness.


Because of their excellent frost tolerance, these flowers will likely be both the first and the last herbs you harvest each year.

For best flavour: Harvest mid-morning, after the dew has evaporated and before the day gets too hot.

Leaves: Not eaten.

Flowers: Gather flowers as they open. Clip flower stalk where it attaches to the stem, then cut stalk at the base of the flower head; discard stalk. Eat flowers whole: petals, stamens and all.

Preserving the Harvest

Flowers will keep for several days in the fridge, but they are best used fresh. Petals can be preserved in oil, butter, or vinegar, or they can be dried and stored in a warm, dark, dry place.


  • Two perennial violets, common dog violet (Viola riviniana) and wood violet (Viola reichenbachiana), are edible. They have little fragrance but a lovely sweet flavour.
  • If you're taking a summer vacation, cut back the foliage by one-third and harvest flowers before you leave; when you return, you'll find another full set of blooms.
  • Violets love well-rotted manure added to their soil.
  • Yellow and white pansies have a gentle fragrance. That’s why I often recommend using these colours in herb gardens.
  • Pansies are a good choice for children’s garden because the plants are easy to grow, the flowers are reliable and colourful, and kids love the flowers because of the colourful 'faces.'

To Note:

  • These flowers are delightful in borders, mixed beds, rock gardens, cottage gardens, windowboxes, hanging baskets, and other containers.
  • The name "pansy" is derived from the French pensée, or thought.
  • Use violet flowers in potpourri, floral waters, and perfumes.
  • The other common name for pansies—heartsease—came from the practice of giving bouquets of these flowers to people with broken hearts.
  • The Greeks chose sweet violet as their symbol of fertility.
  • Ancient Britons used sweet violet flowers as a cosmetic.
  • An infusion made from violet flowers is often used in continental Europe as a substitute for litmus paper as a test for acids and bases (pH). Before litmus paper, violet syrup was used to measure pH. The syrup turns red when exposed to acids, green when exposed to bases.
  • In ancient Athens, violets were used to moderate anger, bring sleep, and to comfort and strengthen the heart.
  • Violets were once thrown on graves for remembrance.


Favourite Herbs: Oregano and Marjoram

Oregano and Marjoram


Origanum spp.

Perennials; normally grown as annuals in colder climates (except sweet marjoram, which is an annual in all climates)

Height 20 to 40 cm; spread 20 to 40 cm.

Lush green herbs with clusters of very small, tubular, mauve, pink or white flowers; grows as a groundcover.

Try these!

Origanum majorana (sweet marjoram): Annual; strong spicy flavour

Origanum majorana aureum (golden marjoram): Annual; similar to sweet marjoram but milder in flavour

Origanum vulgare hirtum (Greek oregano, true oregano): Hardy perennial; strong, excellent flavour—my favourite!

Origanum vulgare hirtum var. 'Kaliteri': High oil content and wonderful flavour (the variety name means “best” in Greek)


Oregano must be started from with young plants purchased from a garden centre. Marjoram may be started indoors from seed or grown from young plants purchased from a garden centre.

How much: Two to three plants.

When: About one week after the date of the average last spring frost.

Where: Full sun; sheltered. Golden varieties need a bit of shade in the afternoon to prevent the leaves from scorching. Excellent in containers. Prefers well-drained soil. Space plants 20 to 60 cm apart.

Care and Nurture

Origanum species are easy to grow! Pinch back to encourage branching and bushy growth. To prevent root rot, never overwater plants.


You can harvest the leaves or the flowers. The flowers have a strong flavour, so use them sparingly. Be sure to pull each flower from its socket (calyx)—you don't want any of the green bits.

For best flavour: Harvest leaves after the flower buds have formed but before they have opened.

Leaves: Harvest as need throughout the growing season. Cut sprigs 6 to 10 cm from the ground. Use whole or strip the leaves; discard tough stems or use on a BBQ for flavouring.

Flowers: Harvest flowers shortly after they open. Flowers grow in clusters; clip cluster from growing stem and pull gently into individual florets.

Preserving the Harvest

Oregano and marjoram dry well—in fact, unlike many herbs, their flavours actually become more intense after drying. These herbs are also suitable for freezing.


  • Wild or common oregano (Origanum vulgare) is a poor variety, with a bland flavour and aroma. It is, however, the available as seed at garden centres. I don’t recommend that you grow this variety, when there are so many better plants to choose from.
  • Growers have recently developed ornamental Origanum varieties. These plants are gorgeous, with loads of flowers and a compact, mounding growth-habit; they bloom right through the season, and the flowers attract butterflies and bees. Just don’t try to eat them!
  • In areas where winters are more severe, protect perennial species by mulching or building up a heavy snow cover.

To Note:

  • Oregano is the most popular dried herb in the United States.
  • Marjoram and oregano look great in rock gardens. Golden oregano makes a good contrast plant for herb gardens.
  • Marjoram and oregano are very attractive to bees and butterflies.
  • Marjoram and oregano leaves can be rubbed over heavy oak furniture and floors to impart a fresh, fragrant polish.
  • It was once believed that sweet marjoram could keep milk from spoiling, hence the adjective "sweet."
  • The Romans and Greeks used sweet marjoram for making crowns for happy young couples.
  • If the ancient Greeks spotted oregano growing on a grave, it meant that the departed was happy in the afterlife.
  • The ancient Greeks used oregano as a remedy for narcotic poisons, convulsions, and dropsy.
  • Marjoram was used as a charm against witchcraft because people believed that anyone who had sold his soul to the devil could not endure its scent.



Favourite Herbs: Nasturtiums



Tropaeolum majus


Height 20 to 30 cm; spread 20 to 30 cm.

Trailing types may reach 60 cm. Plants have mounding dark-green foliage and medium-sized, slightly fragrant, semi-double and double flowers with crinkled petals. Vegetative and seed-propagated varieties have distinct growth habit.

Try these!

Whirlybird series: Seed-propagated nasturtiums with gorgeous double flowers—very showy; bushy growth habit; blooms more profusely than other seed varieties and produces blossoms on top of the foliage rather than under the leaves

Apricot Twist: Vegetatively propagated; double apricot-orange blooms.

Hermione Grashoff: Vegetatively propagated; bright-reddish orange double flowers.

Forest Flame: My favourite vegetative variety, with bright apricot-orange, red-splashed double flowers and cream-and-green variegated leaves; looks gorgeous in salads


When growing nasturtiums, the most important thing to note is that seed-propagated varieties and vegetatively propagated varieties have very different care requirements. Seed varieties require less care, but with a bit more work, vegetative varieties offer massive numbers of blooms. If you want to grow the more-robust vegetative nasturtiums, you'll need to buy young plants from a garden centre, because these varieties do not produce viable seed.

How much: Two or three plants; more for ornamental use.

When: One week after the date of average last spring frost.

Where: Full sun to light shade. Excellent in containers or hanging baskets. Vegetative nasturtiums like rich soil; seed varieties prefer average or poor soil. Space each plant 20 to 30 cm apart in the garden, 15 cm apart in pots.

Care and Nurture

Nasturtiums are easy to grow! Water thoroughly, but only when soil is dry. Vegetative nasturtiums require heavy feeding, but seed nasturtiums require little, if any, fertilizer. Vegetative nasturtiums should be pinched and deadheaded regularly to promote continuous flowering and bushy growth.


All parts of the nasturtium are edible—the leaves, the flower buds, and the flowers. The buds can be used as a substitute for capers or like a mild peppercorn in salads.

For best flavour: Choose young, tender growth—young leaves and newly opened flowers.

Leaves: Clip the leaf stalk where it attaches to the main growing stem; cut stalk off leaf body and discard.

Flower buds: Harvest while the bud is still tightly closed. Clip cleaning from the stalk.

Flowers: Harvest flowers after they have opened fully. Clip the stalk two or three centimetres from the base of flower head.

Preserving the Harvest

Leaves, flowers, and buds should be used fresh. They cannot be dried or frozen, but may be refrigerated briefly.


  • If the plants get leggy, don’t be afraid to cut the plants back. I cut my plants back quite severely, then water and fertilize well. They grow back with  a vengeance, although they will look ugly for a few days. If you’re planning a week or two of holidays, cut the plants back by up to one-third before you leave. By the time you return, the plants will have reflushed.
  • Nasturtiums are a good choice for children’s gardens because the pea-sized seeds are big enough to be easily handled by small fingers and the plants grow very quickly, with big, bright flowers.
  • Nasturtiums come in a variety of colours, including cherry, gold, mahogany, orange, peach, and scarlet, with new shades making their debut each year.

To Note:

  • Traditional nasturtium varieties attract hummingbirds and bees. But the spurs cause the flowers to face the ground, hiding the them under the foliage. We recommend spurless varieties such as the Whirlybird series, so that the flowers are held well above the foliage, creating a much more colourful display. Nasturtium spurs contain a sweet nectar and are considered a delicacy.
  • Nasturtiums make a lovely short-stemmed cut-flower.
  • The Latin name nasturtium is derived from the words nasus tortus (twisted or convulsed nose), a reference to the plant's pungent scent.
  • In the language of flowers, nasturtiums signify patriotism. Fittingly, Dwight Eisenhower included nasturtiums in his recipe for vegetable soup.


Favourite Herbs: Mint



Mentha spp.

Hardy perennial

Height 15 to 60 cm; spread indefinite.

Vigorous, aggressive plant with dark-green leaves on erect, square stem

Try these!

Mentha spicata (spearmint, English mint): Best cooking mint—my favourite!

Mentha x piperita piperita (peppermint, candy mint): Wonderful peppermint flavour

Mentha suaveolens (apple mint, round-leaf mint): Minty apple-menthol fragrance


Start with young plants purchased from a garden centre, or split a clump from an established plant.

How much: One plant of each type you enjoy.

When: As soon as the soil is warm enough to work.

Where: Full sun; will tolerate light shade. Invasive—should be grown in containers. Prefers rich, moist soil; will grow almost anywhere. Plants are invasive; keep separated by 60 to 90 cm.

Care and Nurture

Mint is easy to grow! Keep the soil moist: mint requires lots of water. In cold regions, mint needs heavy snow cover to survive the winter. Mint needs to be renewed every 3 to 4 years, because the centre gets old, tough, and woody and eventually dies out. Renew mint by thinning the bed, dividing the plant, and giving some away to friends and neighbours. Mint should be replaced with another crop every 4 to 5 years: solid stands of mint—known as "meadow mint"—are vulnerable to rust disease. Remember that any mint roots you leave in the ground will grow into new plants.


Mint grows so vigorously, you can often harvest the whole plant twice in a growing season. Gather stems together in one hand and cut them about 10 cm from the ground.

For best flavour: Harvest just as flowering begins.

Leaves: Harvest individual leaves by clipping the leaf stalk where it attaches to the plant stem. Cut sprigs and use whole, or strip the leaves. Discard tough stalks.

Flowers: Pick as they appear. Clip the flower stalk where it attaches to the plant stem; discard stalk.

Preserving the Harvest

Mint is best used fresh, but it is easily dried, frozen, or preserved in oil or vinegar. Store fresh mint, stems down, in a glass of water covered with a plastic bag; refrigerate. Change the water every 2 days, and it will keep for a week. Mint flowers should be used the same day they are picked. They will keep in the fridge for a short time, but their flavour fades quickly. Mint flowers can also be preserved in oil, butter, or vinegar, but they do not freeze well. Mint leaves can be crystallized.


  • While peppermint and spearmint are the most important culinary herbs, there are plenty of others; indeed, there are more than 30 species and 600 varieties of mint! The best way to select a plant is by nose rather than by name, but here are a few other varieties you might want to try.
    • Curled spearmint (M. spicata ‘Crispa’) has mild spearmint flavour.
    • Pineapple mint (M. suaveolens 'variegata') is similar to apple mint, but its flavour is fruitier and sweeter.
    • Ginger mint (M. x gracilis 'variegata', AKA Metha x gentillis) has a fruity fragrance with a hint of ginger.
  • Don’t buy mint seeds! Mint varieties grown from commercially available seed strains are greatly inferior to the cultivated varieties propagated by cuttings or division.
  • If you grow mint in containers, you must sink the pots into the ground in the fall to enable the mint to survive the winter. The ground acts as insulation to protect the plant. When spring returns, dig up the pot and pull out the root ball. Cut off the bottom one-third to one-half of the roots, and remove any old, woody core. Replant the root clump with new potting mix.

To Note:

  • 1 kg of mint oil can flavour 100,000 sticks of gum.
  • Corsican mint is a great choice for rock gardens, contributing a fresh, clean scent and an inconspicuous beauty. It is less aggressive than other mints and forms a low-growing carpet. It also attracts bees and butterflies.
  • In the Victorian language of flowers, peppermint signifies warm feelings; spearmint, warmth of sentiment.
  • Rats dislike the smell of peppermint.
  • In Greek mythology, Hades, Lord of the Underworld, wooed the beautiful nymph Minthe, which made Hades' wife, Sephony, extremely jealous. Furious, Sephony turned Minthe into a plant—a plant that we call mint.
  • Mint was used in the 14th century for whitening the teeth—a precursor to modern mint toothpaste.


Favourite Herbs: Marigold



Calendula officinalis (pot marigold, calendula), Tagetes erecta (African marigold), Tagetes patula (French marigold), Tagetes signata (signet marigold)

Annuals; may self-sow

Pot marigold: Height 20 to 50 cm; spread 20 to 30 cm. Flowers closely resemble chrysanthemums.

African marigold: Height 15 to 90 cm; spread 30 to 45 cm. Tall plants with large, round, solidly coloured flowers.

French marigold: Height 15 to 30 cm; spread 15 to 20 cm. Shorter plants; flowers vary in colour, size, and petal type.

Signet marigold: Height to 30 cm; spread 30 to 45 cm. Fragrant plants with lacy, fern-like foliage and masses of tiny, brightly coloured single flowers; mounding growth habit.

Try these!

Calendula officinalis (pot marigold, English marigold): mildly spicy flavour; available in a wide range of colours

Tagetes signata (signet marigold, rock garden marigold): flavour is best of all marigolds, like a spicy tarragon


Marigolds and calendula are best grown from young plants purchased from a garden centre. However, both can be started indoors from seed or seeded directly into the garden as soon as the ground is workable.

How much: At least six plants; more for ornamental use.

When: About one week after the date of average last spring frost.

Where: Full sun; will tolerate some light shade. Good in containers and borders. Prefers rich, well-drained soil. Space plants 15 to 45 cm apart.

Care and Nurture

Marigolds are easy to grow! Deadhead regularly to encourage continuous blooming.


Cut flowers often: the more you cut, the more these plants will bloom. Young calendula leaves can be served boiled or steamed as a green vegetable.

For best flavour: Harvest mid-morning, after the dew has evaporated and before the day gets too hot.

Leaves: Pick smaller, more tender leaves for mildest flavour. Cut leaf stalk and use whole.

Flowers: Harvest as soon as the flowers open. Clip flower head from stalk; pick off the outer petals and discard the bitter centre.

Preserving the Harvest

Use flowers fresh, or dry petals immediately for best flavour. To dry, spread petals on screens and put them in a warm, dark, dust-free area with good ventilation. Store dried petals in an airtight jar.


  • Use French and African marigolds for colourful garnishes and attractive table settings, but don’t bother eating them in large quantities, the flavour is strong and bitter: they’re the least palatable marigolds, although they are safely edible.
  • Pot marigolds can stall (stop blooming due to high temperatures) in the midsummer heat. Make sure to water well when the weather is hot. I plant my calendula in areas that get light shade in the late afternoon and they usually bloom throughout the summer.
  • Signet marigolds are an excellent choice for windy locations such as balconies. Both signet marigolds and calendula are excellent for container-growing.

To Note:

  • In Britain and Holland, flowers are added to butters for colour and to soups for flavour.
  • Calendula flowers are known as the poor man's saffron and are often used as a subtitute.
  • Pot marigolds are attractive in rock gardens and make excellent cut-flowers. They also attract bees.
  • Pot marigold petals are good sources of vitamins A and C.
  • The petals from the marigold mixed with the mordant combination of either alum or cream of tartar makes a pale-yellow dye.
  • The pungent lemony fragrance of tagetes foliage is reputed to repel insects. Brushing the leaves as you walk by releases their fresh, clean scent.
  • Pot marigold has been used as a dye and used as a hair rinse to add golden tints to brown or auburn hair.
  • According to the Victorian language of flowers, signet marigolds signify jealousy.
  • Calendula has long been associated with romance because it has traditionally been thought of as an aphrodisiac.
  • Calendulas are native to the Canary Islands and south-central Europe and Asia. In ancient Rome, peasants couldn't afford saffron, so they used powdered calendula petals as a substitute. Early Indian and Arabic cultures used calendulas to colour fabrics, foods, and cosmetics.
  • Pot marigold leaves were used to treat wounded soldiers during the American Civil War.
  • Pot marigolds were said to bloom on the calends (first day of the month)—hence the Latin name Calendula.