health

A Tale of Two Pesticides

A Tale of Two Pesticides

August is the prime season for picking up some terrific, locally grown fruits and vegetables. But for many shoppers, there is always that one issue that creates a bit of anxiety: “Should I purchase organic or non-organic produce?”

Any debate about organic gardening is bound to generate a lot of heat, but not much light. Now, organic gardening is more than just a debate about pesticides. It encompasses issues such as composting, recycling and the role of megacorporations. But pesticides are always at the forefront. Perhaps a tale of two pesticides will help clarify where organic and non-organic gardening methods share common ground, and where they do not.

A Choice of Philosophies

There are many conscientious market gardeners, both organic and conventional, who are dedicated to providing safe produce while remaining good stewards of the land. Yet some claim that you can’t be a responsible grower if you use pesticides, and that any pesticide-treated crop presents an unacceptable health risk. The reasoning I hear cited most often to assert the superiority of organic produce is that it’s free of pesticides. But this is not necessarily true—it’s just that the choice of pesticides is different for organic gardeners versus non-organic gardeners.

Rotenone vs. Permethrin

Rotenone is one of the stalwarts of organic gardening. It’s a chemical derived from a variety of plants from the pea family. Rotenone is extracted from the seeds, leaves and roots of these plants, and it controls a wide range of insects.

Permethrin, on the other hand, is a non-organic pesticide, commonly sold under the trade name Ambush. It’s categorized as a synthetic pyrethroid, which means that it’s a chemical similar in structure and effect to pyrethrum, a naturally occurring insecticide found in chrysanthemums. Like Rotenone, Permethrin controls a wide range of insect species.

So what’s the difference between the two when it comes to their effect on the environment?

Both are very safe products, when used properly. But surprisingly, organic Rotenone is more acutely toxic to people than non-organic Permethrin. In fact, if you ate pure Rotenone or pure Permethrin (definitely not recommended!) you would need to eat about four times as much Permethrin as Rotenone to have the same dire effect on your body.

But at the low rates that these two products are applied to edible plants, neither poses any acute toxicity risk, if they are used properly and if the recommended pre-harvest interval (the days between spraying and consumption) is observed. Toxicological data also shows that neither chemical appears to be carcinogenic, even if large amounts of fruits and vegetables treated with these products were consumed every day.

The Lowdown on Breakdown

When it comes to the fate of these two chemicals in the environment, there again appears to be a lot of similarity. Both Rotenone and Permethrin break down in soil rapidly, thanks to the work of microorganisms—Rotenone will break up completely in a few days, while Permethrin might take a few weeks. However, neither chemical moves much in soil, staying in the top few centimetres before they break down, so there’s very low potential for groundwater pollution.
The sun’s ultraviolet light breaks down these chemicals very quickly, which explains why insects can consume the chemically-treated leaves only a day or two after spraying without any ill effects.

Effects on Fauna

Rotenone is very slightly toxic to birds, while Permethrin is practically non-toxic. However, each of these products is toxic to fish, Rotenone particularly so. In fact, Rotenone is often used as a “piscicide” to kill unwanted fish in lakes. On the other hand, Permethrin, although not nearly as toxic to fish as Rotenone, is extremely toxic to bees, while Rotenone is far less so. Of course, you can avoid killing bees by not spraying when they’re pollinating your flowers.

Rational Choices

Choosing the right pesticide isn’t a trivial matter—it’s important to use the correct pesticides only when necessary and only after the pest has been correctly identified. And nobody knows that fact better than the people who provide fresh produce for a living, whether they use organic or conventional means.

The Health Benefits of Plants (and Other Interesting Stories)

There's nothing quite like a day at the greenhouse during the winter.  It's warm and sunny inside the greenhouse, and—best of all—you're surrounded by all kinds of plants. 

There's even research that shows that simply being around greenery in the form of potted houseplants and trees improves our concentrationreduces our blood pressure,  and can even speed up our recovery from illness.

In fact,  we have daily visitors who stop by the greenhouse in the winter not to buy anything in particular, but to have a cup of coffee in the Glasshouse Bistro and to walk through our rows and rows of plants because it puts them in a better mood.

Of course, we've also have some funnier stories of people visiting the greenhouse in a bit of a panic.
 

False Alarmia


I'll never forget the time that a woman intercepted me as I was walking  into our Garden Centre. She was rather sheepishly and secretively clutching the leaf of a plant, and quietly asked me a question.
 
"I just found this growing in my son's room!" she cried. “Is this what I think it is?”
 
Taking a closer look at the plant in her hand, I murmured, "Umm... False Aralia?"
 
Turns out, she was very relieved to know that her son wasn’t growing what she was suspected was marijuana. And, in all fairness to Mom, False Aralia leaves bear a fairly close resemblance to those of the infamous marijuana plant.

Her son, I imagine, was probably less pleased to find out that the plant he had paid a pretty penny for was nothing but an ordinary houseplant.

Urine Trouble Now

Then there was the time that a concerned woman phoned me up and told me that her husband insisted that human urine was an excellent fertilizer for potatoes. 

Furthermore, he insisted on not wasting this valuable resource by flushing it down the toilet. Instead, he had a nightly ritual of  on peeing on the plot of potatoes in their yard.
 
"He claims it's the best treatment for growing great potatoes," she said, in a quiet voice. 

At first, I thought I was being ribbed, but she was deadly serious. Under the cover of darkness, he would quietly slip outside and urinate on the spuds, varying his location each night to spread his precious "nutrients" around. "Is it still okay to eat the potatoes?" she asked.
  
While we think nothing of adding animal manure to our gardens, human waste makes most of us a little queasy.  

I did a little research on the nutrient content and composition of human urine and discovered that it does contains fairly high levels of many essential plant nutrients. 

In fact, the nitrogen levels can be quite high—which is good—but the overall salt concentration can also be rather high which can lead to plant injury if one is overzealous during application. Therefore, discretion is a must, both in fine-tuning dosages and choosing a discreet time to fertilize that won't scandalize the neighbours.
 
 Oh, and when it comes eating the potatoes, odds are very strongly in favour of there not being any safety concerns BUT my position was to err on the side of caution and not recommend these potatoes for human consumption. And, of course, there is always the "ick" factor.

~Jim Hole

p.s. Which gardening trends are you interested in this year? Do you have ideas for workshops that you'd like to see us put on or things you'd like to learn more about this year? Drop us a line at newsletter@holesonline.com! We're programming our 2015 workshops and events now and would love to hear from you.