organic

A Tale of Two Pesticides

A Tale of Two Pesticides

August is the prime season for picking up some terrific, locally grown fruits and vegetables. But for many shoppers, there is always that one issue that creates a bit of anxiety: “Should I purchase organic or non-organic produce?”

Any debate about organic gardening is bound to generate a lot of heat, but not much light. Now, organic gardening is more than just a debate about pesticides. It encompasses issues such as composting, recycling and the role of megacorporations. But pesticides are always at the forefront. Perhaps a tale of two pesticides will help clarify where organic and non-organic gardening methods share common ground, and where they do not.

A Choice of Philosophies

There are many conscientious market gardeners, both organic and conventional, who are dedicated to providing safe produce while remaining good stewards of the land. Yet some claim that you can’t be a responsible grower if you use pesticides, and that any pesticide-treated crop presents an unacceptable health risk. The reasoning I hear cited most often to assert the superiority of organic produce is that it’s free of pesticides. But this is not necessarily true—it’s just that the choice of pesticides is different for organic gardeners versus non-organic gardeners.

Rotenone vs. Permethrin

Rotenone is one of the stalwarts of organic gardening. It’s a chemical derived from a variety of plants from the pea family. Rotenone is extracted from the seeds, leaves and roots of these plants, and it controls a wide range of insects.

Permethrin, on the other hand, is a non-organic pesticide, commonly sold under the trade name Ambush. It’s categorized as a synthetic pyrethroid, which means that it’s a chemical similar in structure and effect to pyrethrum, a naturally occurring insecticide found in chrysanthemums. Like Rotenone, Permethrin controls a wide range of insect species.

So what’s the difference between the two when it comes to their effect on the environment?

Both are very safe products, when used properly. But surprisingly, organic Rotenone is more acutely toxic to people than non-organic Permethrin. In fact, if you ate pure Rotenone or pure Permethrin (definitely not recommended!) you would need to eat about four times as much Permethrin as Rotenone to have the same dire effect on your body.

But at the low rates that these two products are applied to edible plants, neither poses any acute toxicity risk, if they are used properly and if the recommended pre-harvest interval (the days between spraying and consumption) is observed. Toxicological data also shows that neither chemical appears to be carcinogenic, even if large amounts of fruits and vegetables treated with these products were consumed every day.

The Lowdown on Breakdown

When it comes to the fate of these two chemicals in the environment, there again appears to be a lot of similarity. Both Rotenone and Permethrin break down in soil rapidly, thanks to the work of microorganisms—Rotenone will break up completely in a few days, while Permethrin might take a few weeks. However, neither chemical moves much in soil, staying in the top few centimetres before they break down, so there’s very low potential for groundwater pollution.
The sun’s ultraviolet light breaks down these chemicals very quickly, which explains why insects can consume the chemically-treated leaves only a day or two after spraying without any ill effects.

Effects on Fauna

Rotenone is very slightly toxic to birds, while Permethrin is practically non-toxic. However, each of these products is toxic to fish, Rotenone particularly so. In fact, Rotenone is often used as a “piscicide” to kill unwanted fish in lakes. On the other hand, Permethrin, although not nearly as toxic to fish as Rotenone, is extremely toxic to bees, while Rotenone is far less so. Of course, you can avoid killing bees by not spraying when they’re pollinating your flowers.

Rational Choices

Choosing the right pesticide isn’t a trivial matter—it’s important to use the correct pesticides only when necessary and only after the pest has been correctly identified. And nobody knows that fact better than the people who provide fresh produce for a living, whether they use organic or conventional means.

Lettuce Grow

Have you ever tasted lettuce fresh from the garden? I mean really fresh. Picked less than 30 minutes ago? The difference in taste is incredible! You will never settle for shop lettuce again after you tasted a truly fresh garden lettuce.

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Well lucky for you, lettuce greens are so easy to grow (indoors now, outdoors later), they grow so fast, they’re so nutritious and so delicious, and growing them is a breeze. If you aren't already planning on planting lettuce, here are a few reasons why you ought to:

Not everyone has a large garden space, but the great thing about lettuce is that it’s a fantastic vegetable for container planting. With enough water, lettuce will thrive in trays as shallow as 4” and pots or containers of any kind. And I do mean any kind. Your grandmother had it figured out when she used those old dresser drawers to plant her lettuce in!

The trick is not to go overboard. The biggest mistake home gardeners make when planting lettuce is planting one big patch at the beginning of summer. Five weeks later they’re swimming in lettuce. I’m sure you love salad as much as the next person, but trust me on this one: The key is planting a small patch where you have a gap in the garden every 2-3 weeks instead. That will give you a steady (and manageable) supply through the summer.

Lettuce is one speedy vegetable. It goes from seed to baby greens in 4 to 6 weeks and from seed to salad bowl in 6-8 weeks. Because it grows so quickly, lettuce is a great short season vegetable to interplant with other long season vegetables such as peppers, broccoli, cauliflower, tomatoes, or eggplants.

With dozens of different lettuce varieties, each with its own unique colour, texture and flavour, home gardeners have some serious choice. Here are a few interesting varieties you might enjoy:

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Lettuce - Sea of Red – Sea of Red lettuce is a perfect red-wine contrast to your otherwise very green salad. With open loose heads of sword-shaped leaves that colour up to a beautiful and amazingly deep mahogany-red, this lettuce also makes a great addition to planters with ornamentals. And, unlike other red lettuces that fade in the sun, Sea of Red’s colour just becomes more intense.

Harvesting the entire head of Sea of Red lettuce is fine, however if you snip off the young lettuce leaves about ten centimeters above ground instead, it will vigorously re-sprout and provide several more harvests.

Since the leaves grow upright, it makes growing the lettuces tightly together possible. This creates the appearance of a sea of red!


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Lettuce - Garden Babies Butterhead – This lettuce is a salad lover’s fantasy: buttery texture and an outstanding sweet taste. But more than that, they are a gardener’s dream. This lettuce is perfect looking!

Garden Babies were originally developed for the Japanese luxury market, where a premium is put on flavour and quality. The cute perfectly formed little butterhead rosettes are ideal for growing in containers. They are slow to bolt, heat tolerant, and make twelve to fifteen centimeter heads at maturity.

This lettuce is perfect for individual servings, which makes them as much fun to eat as they are to grow!


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Lettuce - Drunken Woman  The honest truth is I chose this variety because I was tickled by the name. Who could resist having a “Drunken Woman Fringed Headed” in their garden?

The best guess is that this fabulous lettuce’s name refers to its frizzy headed look. The Drunken Woman lettuce boasts emerald green leaves tipped in mahogany red.

Unlike the Butterhead varieties this isn't a melt-in-your-mouth type lettuce. It’s heavy on the crunch! With a nuttier than buttery flavour, Drunken Woman is the perfect vehicle for any number of vinaigrettes or toppings.

Enjoy, and may your salads never be boring again!