perennial

Arisaema- Jack AND Jill in the Pulpit

Arisaema – Jack AND Jill in the Pulpit

By Jim Hole

Most of us are familiar with the basics of plant sexuality: bees (or other insects) spread pollen from flower to flower as they forage for food. The fertilized flower produces seeds, which grow into new plants. But not all plants follow this simple pattern; Arisaema, also known as Jack in the Pulpit, in particular, definitely pursues an alternative lifestyle.

A Popular Perennial

The genus Arisaema consists of about 150 species, with an extraordinarily wide geographic range, extending from Africa through southeast and central Asia, the Himalayas and North America. A few species are hardy on the Prairies, provided they are in a woodland setting complete with rich, leafy soil and shade.

Arisaema has long fascinated gardeners, particularly perennial enthusiasts. As the common name implies, the flower, with a bit of imagination, looks like a person standing in a church pulpit. Arisaemas are worth growing for their unusual flowers, but they are all the more interesting for their remarkable sex lives.

Alternative Life Cycles

Most plants are monoecious, producing male and female flowers on the same plant. However, there are many dioecious plants, plants that actually have separate genders, such as hops, holly and ash trees. Flowers that are, botanically speaking, “perfect” are in fact bisexual; that is, each flower contains both male and female structures within the same flower.

Gender Reassignment

Arisaemas on the other hand, are neither monoecious nor dioecious; they are paradioecious. They could be called the transsexuals of the garden, because they change their gender as the situation requires.

Young arisaemas (or older arisaemas that lack vigour for whatever reason) are generally male, while well-fed, strong adult plants are typically female or bisexual; in effect, as the plant matures, Jack in the Pulpit becomes Jill in the Pulpit.

But this isn’t the only sex change arisaema can undergo. It’s fairly common for the plant to switch to producing only male flowers after the female flowers bear fruit; doing so takes less energy, and allows the plant to regain some strength. Seed production requires a lot more plant resources than pollen production, so flip-flopping between genders ensures there is enough energy to expend on seed production when resources are plentiful, yet conserves energy when such resources are lean.

Jack or Jill?

In the botanical world, a little gender-bending can give certain plants a competitive edge. In nature, when it comes to survival, nothing is certain; gender is just another tool that can be manipulated to ensure the survival of the species.

Moon Garden

Create a Nighttime Garden for the Senses


A nighttime garden is a magical place filled with unfamiliar murmurs and inviting
fragrances—the perfect place for rest and retreat. At the end of a workday, there
may be little time to spend in the yard before dusk, so it just makes sense to plan
a garden that comes alive in the evening. The best of these gardens play to our
sense of sight, scent and sound. Softly lit shadows, fragrant night air, musical
dark water. With a few thoughtful choices, you too can create a space that
functions as well in the evening as it does in the day—all it takes is a little night
magic.


See the Night
Many of the features that turn a garden into a place of nighttime splendour will
also improve its daytime beauty. Luminous whites, silvers and creams reflect the
moonlight and contrast dark foliage, giving your eyes a reprieve from the pinks,
blues and yellows that populate most flowerbeds. Two perfect examples are
‘Incrediball’ hydrangea and ‘Affinis White’ nicotiana. Both have striking blossoms
and architecture that would enhance any garden, but at night, they stand out
from the shadows and create luminous points of interest.


The lemon yellow blossoms of this evening primrose (Oenothera macrocarpa)
open at dusk, making this perennial an ideal choice for a nighttime garden. For
best results, give this plant a home in a sunny rock garden with good drainage.
Height: 15–30 cm; width: 30–50 cm. Sun. 
Incredibly large ball-shaped flowers are the hallmark of this new variety of
hydrangea arborescens. ‘Incrediball’ is a hardy hydrangea bred to have sturdier
stems and larger blooms than the similar-looking and ever-popular ‘Annabelle.’
Spectacular, late-summer blooms emerge lime green, mature to white and then
age to a darker green. Given sufficient moisture, this shrub will tolerate full sun.
Height: 60–100+ cm; width: up to 1 m. Shade to A.M. sun.

Nicotiana is known for its
jasmine-like scent, but it’s this
variety’s white flowers that will
capture your attention in the
moonlight. ‘Affinis White’ blooms
continuously throughout the                                                                                                summer, providing a plethora of
trumpet-shaped flowers with which
to tempt the senses of both
gardeners and hummingbirds.
Height: 90–100 cm; spacing:
25–30 cm. Sun to P.M. sun.


Lighting Made Easy
There are numerous ways to supplement moonlight in the garden. Here are a
few of our favourite options.
• Solar lighting: A few well-placed solar lights will cast a subtle luminescence on
your garden. Because of its recent popularity, solar lighting can be found in
every style from path lights that oscillate a kaleidoscope of colours to
traditional carriage lights and whimsical paper lanterns. All are fantastic
options.
• Electrical lights: String lights are ideal for adding a twinkle to evergreens or the
rooflines of gazebos. Spotlights are ideal for highlighting a central garden
feature, such as a fountain, pond or statue.
• Candlelight: Little else can compete with the flickering glow of candlelight.
However, to keep your garden safe as well as beautiful, you should house
your candles in lanterns or other lidded vessels.


Quick tip
Create a nighttime focal point that’s visible from your window. This way, you can
enjoy your garden even on nights when the weather keeps you in.


Breathe the Fragrance
Our senses come alive at night, so there’s no better time to experience the sweet
fragrance of flowers and the pungent scent of evergreens. Evening scented stock
are traditionally a favourite, but more unusual options, such as brugmansia
(Angel’s trumpet), should not be overlooked. To bring those fragrances indoors,
simply plant aromatic annuals near a frequented doorway or an open window.


The gorgeous fragrance of evening scented stock more than makes up for
this plant’s unassuming nature. Pale mauve flowers fill the night air with a vanilla
and nutmeg scent that can best be described as irresistible. Their airy
and unkempt growth habit is best suited to mass plantings or the middle of
borders where shorter plants can disguise their bases. Height: 35–40 cm;
spacing: 10–15 cm. Sun.
 
If vanilla-scented mounds of lacy flowers are your thing, then heliotrope is your
plant. Its upright habit makes this annual perfect for framing the edges of borders
or filling out pots and window boxes. Height: 30–35 cm; spacing: 25–35 cm. Sun.
 

Merely brush past a container of petunias in the evening, and you’ll instantly
know why they belong in a nighttime garden. Few other plants perform as
exceptionally as petunias, but it’s their heady fragrance that makes these
annuals stand out in the evening. ‘Midnight’ (from the Madness series) is a
particularly beautiful shade of purple. An old favourite for good reasons. Height:
25–30 cm; spacing: 15–20 cm. Sun to P.M. sun. 


Take an evening stroll through a
patch of woolly thyme (Thymus
pseudolanuginosus) and be
instantly refreshed by the earthy,
herbal notes it releases. And
don’t worry about the thyme
because it can withstand light
foot traffic. The grey-green
foliage of this perennial is
covered in bright-pink blooms from
late spring to early summer.
Drought tolerant. Mat forming.
Height: 1–2 cm; width: 30–45+ cm.
Sun to P.M. sun. 


For a sense of drama that’ll keep you smiling, add brugmansia to your patio or
garden. This massive annual has impressive trumpet-like flowers that are up to
30 cm long. During the day, the large leaves of this towering plant do a great job
of filtering light. During the night, the fragrance from its sweet-scented flowers fills
the air. Height: 1–2 m. Sun. 


Hear the Night Music
Each fountain, brook or waterfall has a sound and charm unique to itself.
Selecting a fountain that’s music to your ears will often mean finding a
fountainhead that generates the sound you like. Fortunately, there are almost as
many styles as there are gardeners. 
Whispering in the softest breeze, the elegant blades and seed heads of feather
reed grass (Calamagrostis x acutiflora) will create sound and movement in your
nighttime garden. ‘Avalanche’ is a particular favourite on the prairies for the
interest its towering blades add to the wintery landscape. This clump-forming
grass tolerates poor soils but performs best with good moisture. Height:
90–150 cm; width: 30–45 cm. Su
n
Finding wind chimes you’ll want to listen to on a regular basis can be as
difficult as finding a radio station for your daily commute. However, when you do
find the right fit, you don’t want to be without it. 


Garden Frogs 101
Frog calls have their own magic. With diminishing global frog populations, many conservation groups are encouraging gardeners to create urban frog habitats.
• If you wish to attract frogs to your garden, you’ll need a body of water with
sloping sides. At least part of the water should be shallow; frogs prefer shallow
water for laying eggs.
• Algae is a vital food source for tadpoles, so a frog pond should be partly
shaded (to keep the soil moist) and partly sunny (to increase algae production).
• Frogs do not mix well with fish, so if you have Koi or Gold Fish, you’ll have
difficulty attracting frogs.
• Provide shelter and shaded areas in the form of rocks, shrubs and low-
growing plants.
• Be aware that, although enchanting at a distance, frog calls can become quite loud during breeding season. You may not be popular if your frog habitat is located close to your neighbour's bedroom window.


Did you know?
Frogs are nature’s pest control experts. Frogs eat slugs, cutworms, mosquitoes, earwigs and various beetles.

What Lies Below

Over the years, I’ve received thousands of leaf, stem, and soil samples from gardeners who need help figuring out why their plants aren’t growing the way they should, and how to get them back on track.

Often, the diagnostics are pretty straight-forward and simple. If the problem is a large insect - like a cabbageworm - identification is pretty easy and there are a number of good products available for control. 

But many plant problems are more complex than voracious cabbageworms, and a lot of background information is critical when performing the "Plant Forensics”. Good samples of plant parts, lots of good photographs, soil samples, and historical data are really valuable tools for solving the really difficult plant problems. 

Since trees are some of most high-priced and expensive garden plants, they comprise the majority of the plant samples that I receive and they are often the toughest problems to solve. 

The one tip that I will offer those who have tree problems is to spend as much time looking "down" as you do looking "up". Trees are analogous to icebergs in a way. Just as about 90% of an iceberg’s mass is below the sea surface, 90% of the serious problems that I see with trees originate below the soil surface.

And neither ships nor trees fare well when due consideration is not given to what lies below.

~Jim Hole